# Advice To A Young Scientist by P. B. Medawar

By P. B. Medawar

To these attracted to a existence in technology, Sir Peter Medawar, Nobel laureate, deflates the myths of invincibility, superiority and genius; as a substitute, he demonstrates it's normal experience and an inquiring brain which are necessary to the scientist's calling.

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Vii) I = R, f (x) = ax −bx cx −dx , where 0 < d < c < b < a. −b viii) I = R, f (x) = log acx −d x , where 0 < d < c < b < a and ad ≥ bc. x x (Proof: Statements vii) and viii) are given in [238, p. 2. Let I ⊆ (0, ∞) be a ﬁnite or inﬁnite interval, let f : I → R, and deﬁne g : I → R by g(x) = xf (1/x). Then, f is (convex, strictly convex) if and only if g is (convex, strictly convex). (Proof: See [1039, p. 3. Let f : R → R, assume that f is convex, and assume that there exists α ∈ R such that, for all x ∈ R, f (x) ≤ α.

The direction of an arc can be denoted by an arrow head. For example, consider a graph that represents a city with streets (arcs) connecting houses (nodes). Then, a symmetric relation is a street plan with no one-way streets, whereas an antisymmetric relation is a street plan with no two-way streets. 1. Let G = (X, R) be a graph. Then, the following terminology is deﬁned: i) The reversal of G is the graph rev(G) = (X, rev(R)). ii) The complement of G is the graph G∼ = (X, R∼ ). iii) The reﬂexive hull of G is the graph ref(G) = (X, ref(R)).

This terminology has no mathematical consequence. The notation x(i) represents the ith component of the vector x. The notation A(i,j) represents the scalar (i, j) entry of A. Ai,j or Aij denotes a block or submatrix of A. All matrices have nonnegative integral dimensions. If at least one of the dimensions of a matrix is zero, then the matrix is empty. The entries of a submatrix Aˆ of a matrix A are the entries of A lying in speciﬁed rows and columns. Aˆ is a block of A if Aˆ is a submatrix of A whose entries are entries of adjacent rows and columns of A.