An elementary treatise on determinants by Charles L. Dodgson

By Charles L. Dodgson

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The Irish were outraged at the savage executions, especially that of Connolly, who had been so badly injured in the fighting that he couldn’t stand and had to be tied to a chair to face the firing squad. The murdered patriots became martyrs in Ireland, and the Irish commitment to fight for freedom was bolstered. The Irish flag Ireland’s flag — three thick vertical strips of green, white, and orange — was first used by Irish Nationalists in 1848. The green represents Ireland’s Nationalist majority (mostly Catholic), the orange represents the Unionist minority (mostly Protestant), and the white stands for the hoped-for peace between them.

James struck back in Ireland, launching the unsuccessful siege of the Protestant walled city of Derry, during which the inhabitants of Derry slammed the city gates shut and remained inside for 105 days, subsisting on rats and other vermin. In what is arguably the most important battle in Irish history, James was trounced by William at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, giving Protestant England complete control over Ireland. Penal Laws were enacted that forbade Gaelic and Old English Catholics alike from owning land, practicing law, holding public office, bearing arms, and even practicing Catholicism (though this last tenet was not strictly enforced).

Naturally, the Irish Catholic inhabitants of Ulster strongly resented the imposition of these Protestant settlers, and thousands were massacred when the Catholic rebelled in 1641. The 17th-century bitterness between the Protestant settlers and the Catholic natives is one of the roots of the modern Troubles in Northern Ireland. 26 Part I: Introducing Ireland In 1649, eight years after the Catholic rebellion, the ruthless Puritan English leader Oliver Cromwell arrived in Ireland with the goal of taking the whole of Ireland under English control.

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