Research on Child Health and Pediatric Issues by Joyce J. Fitzpatrick PhD MBA RN FAAN, Margaret Miles PhD

By Joyce J. Fitzpatrick PhD MBA RN FAAN, Margaret Miles PhD RN FAAN, Diane Holditch-Davis PhD RN FAAN

This twenty first quantity of the Annual evaluation synthesizes nursing study to this point on baby well-being and ailment, together with kinfolk matters. a while diversity from pre-term infants to teenagers, with a spotlight on continual ailment. a unique ultimate bankruptcy studies the highlights of the earlier 10 volumes of the yearly overview of Nursing examine, to mark the 20 th anniversary of the Review.

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1998). Dynamic systems theories. In R. M. Lerner & W. ), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. I. , pp. 563-634). New York: John Wiley. Thoman, E. , & Becker, P. T. (1983). Infant crying and stability in the mother-infant relationship: A systems analysis. Child Development, 54, 653-659. Vessey, J. A. (1998). Historical overview of responses of children and their families to acute illness. In M. E. Broome, K. Knafl, K. Pridham, & S. ), Children and families in health and illness (pp. 99-114). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

In response to painful procedures, infants showed negative facial expressions, mouth opening, brow furrowing, hand clenching, muscle rigidity, and moving away, and all but the youngest and sickest preterms cried (Vogelpohl, Evans, & Cedargren, 1995). Similar responses were seen in infants receiving procedures, such as repositioning and intravenous medications, not known to be painful (Evans, Vogelpohl, Bourguignon, & Morcott, 1997). Evans (1992) also found that increasing the FiO2 prior to suctioning and ventilating with 100% O2 during suctioning eliminated apnea and bradycardia and reduced the incidence of hypoxia but did not increase blood pressure occurring during suctioning.

The child and social environment form a complex system consisting of elements that are themselves systems, such as the mother and child. The various elements interact together so that the total system shows less variability than the individual elements (Thoman, Acebo, & Becker, 1983). The child is an active participant, constantly changing the environment while being influenced by it. Subsystems within the child, such as physiological processes, temperament, and medical complications, affect the overall system and in turn are affected by it.

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