By David Hitchcock, Bart Verheij
Within the makes use of of Argument (1958), Stephen Toulmin proposed a version for the format of arguments: declare, info, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal, backing. for the reason that then, Toulmin’s version has been appropriated, tailored and prolonged by means of researchers in speech communications, philosophy and synthetic intelligence. This ebook assembles the easiest modern mirrored image in those fields, extending or difficult Toulmin’s principles in ways in which make clean contributions to the speculation of analysing and comparing arguments.
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Extra info for Arguing on the Toulmin Model: New Essays in Argument Analysis and Evaluation (Argumentation Library)
366 g vonwright, explanation understa 20. 362 m bunge, treatise basic phil 21. 300 n cartwright, how laws physics lie 22. 287 p martinlof, inform control 23. 276 c alchourron, j symbolic logic 24. 251 p suppes, probabilistic theory 25. 248 i levi, enterprise knowledge 26. 244 n rescher, many valued logic 27. 236 a church, j symbolic logic 28. 231 r carnap, meaning necessity 29. 215 a ayer, language truth logic 30. 198 b chellas, modal logic intro Table 3: Citations for most popular works of Toulmin and others Perhaps few would anticipate that Toulmin has been larger than Carnap, Church, Tarski, and Russell-Whitehead, in the past decade and a half.
I don’t know how long it will take for citation counts to show this as a fact. Probably it will take a long time for scholars to come to this position, and citation counts may soon lose their meaning, as publication and citation habits change. Nevertheless, the student of argument must take heart in the citation evidence that is already available for comparative impact. I had approached this article by preparing all kinds of apologies for the seminal philosophical logician, relative to the mathematical logician or technically nonstandard logician.
That was one of the reasons why Leibniz deeply objected to Newton’s theory of gravitation. He saw no mechanical connection between the Sun and the Earth. We may have better ways of understanding how gravitation works, even though gravitons remain one of the more mysterious features of the physical world. But at any rate we do not see it as a matter of cog-wheels, which is to say - as my Yugoslav friend Stefan Dedijer commented— what we have here is “the subversion of historical materialism by science”: a 28 STEPHEN E.