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Extra resources for Astronomy Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations Dating Ptolemys Almagest
Radioastronomical observations of neutral atomic or molecular gas clouds provide us with such a tracer. If we assume that a gas cloud moves on a circular orbit around the Galactic Center, the ‘Galactic Structure Equation’ can be derived: Vobs = R0 V0 Vr − Rr R0 sin l. Here, Vobs is the observed radial velocity, Vr is the velocity at distance r , V0 is the orbital velocity of the Sun, Rr denotes the distance from the Galactic Center of a cloud at distance r from the Sun, R0 is the distance of the Sun from the Galactic Center and l is the Galactic longitude of the cloud at r .
3 ‘External’ views More than seven decades later, data from many wavelength ranges, many of which penetrate the layer of dust extinction, are at our disposal to derive Galactic structure. Still, all our direct observational views are (and will remain for the indeﬁnite future) internal and edge-on, with all the associated problems. By now, they cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. This includes the radio regime, where we encounter non-thermal synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons at long cm wavelengths, emission from neutral atomic hydrogen at 21 cm and molecules, most prominently CO, which are used to trace the molecular gas component, at mm wavelengths.
3 how simulations based on the triaxial structure of the bulge also contribute to our understanding of the large-scale spiral structure of the Milky Way, which, however, remains far from complete and perfect. 4. The properties of its stellar population are not easy to determine, since the extinction to this region is generally high. ‘Baade’s window’ is an exception, a region at Galactic latitude b ≈ −4◦ , where the extinction happens to be low. Thus, up to a short time ago most observations of the stars in the bulge were made either in Baade’s window or other regions at high Galactic latitude (|b| > 3◦ ).