Astrophysics at Very High Energies: Saas-Fee Advanced Course by Felix Aharonian, Lars Bergström, Charles Dermer, Roland

By Felix Aharonian, Lars Bergström, Charles Dermer, Roland Walter, Marc Türler

With the luck of Cherenkov Astronomy and extra lately with the release of NASA’s Fermi venture, very-high-energy astrophysics has gone through a revolution within the final years. This publication presents 3 finished and updated stories of the new advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer deal with our present wisdom at the assets of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the ideal measurements made via the recent instrumentation. Lars Bergström offers the demanding situations and customers of astro-particle physics with a selected emphasis at the detection of darkish subject applicants. the themes coated through the fortieth Saas-Fee path current the services of present instrumentation and the physics at play in assets of very-high-energy radiation to scholars and researchers alike. This booklet will motivate and get ready readers for utilizing area and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, in addition to neutrino and different multi-messenger detectors.

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15). Another interesting feature is the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the cut-off region. The δ-function approximation which agrees quite well with the results of accurate calculations at low energies, fails to describe correctly the spectrum at highest energies around the cut-off (see Fig. 16). e. predicts exp[−(E γ /E γ,0 )] type cut-off term with E γ,0 = kπ E 0 the same shape as the proton spectrum but shifted by a factor of 6 towards low energies. 06E 0 . 01E 0 . Finally we note that for α = 2, the amplitude of the gamma-ray spectrum at energies E E 0 exceeds the level of the flux of muonic neutrinos.

Equation (16) allows one to derive the gamma-ray emissivity qγ (E γ ) for an arbitrary distribution of protons N p E p : qγ E γ = c n H = c nH ∞ Eγ 1 0 σinel E p N p E p Fγ σinel Eγ x Np Eγ x Eγ , Ep Ep dEp Ep Eγ x dx , x Fγ x, (17) where the inelastic pp cross section σinel E p is given by Eq. (15). Figure 16 shows the spectra of secondary gamma-ray, electrons and neutrinos obtained for the proton distribution given in the form N (E) = A E −α exp − E E0 β , (18) with α = 2, β = 1, and E 0 = 1000 TeV.

The cross-sections are normalised to one radiation length. The energies of primary electrons and gamma-ray ε0 (in units of m e c2 ) are indicated at the curves energies ε ≥ εcr . At lower energies electrons dissipate their energy by ionization rather than producing more high energy gamma-ray which would support further development of the electron–photon shower. In Fig. 13 the bremsstrahlung total cross-sections are shown calculated for 3 different values of minimum energy of emitted gamma-ray: εth = 2, εcr and εe /2.

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