Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of by Gideon Freudenthal

By Gideon Freudenthal

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1. difficulties and techniques of Analysis.- 2. technological know-how and Philosophy; Newton and Leibniz.- three. ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Space.- four. Newton’s thought of area and the gap idea of Newtonianism.- five. The Leibniz-Newton dialogue and the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.- One/Element and approach in Classical Mechanics.- I. Newton’s Justification of the speculation of Absolute Space.- 1. Absolute movement and Absolute house; Newton’s First Presupposition.- 2. evidence of the life of a Vacuum; Newton’s moment Presupposition.- three. ‘Density’ and ‘Quantity of Matter’.- four. facts of the lifestyles of Empty Space.- five. the basic homes of a Particle in Empty house; the matter of Gravitation.- 6. Newton’s legislations of Inertia.- 7. A unmarried Particle in Empty house; Newton’s basic Presupposition.- II. Leibniz’s Foundations of Dynamics.- 1. Leibniz’s New degree of Force.- 2. Descartes’ mistakes and the bounds of the notion of Leibniz.- three. motion motrice.- four. Leibniz’s legislation of Inertia.- five. Absolute movement and Absolute Space.- 6. Density.- 7. legislation of effect, Elasticity, and the idea that of a fabric Body.- III. The dialogue among Leibniz and Newton at the proposal of Science.- 1. Newton’s degree of strength and God’s Intervention.- 2. Newton’s thought of Gravity and area because the Sensorium Dei.- three. Leibniz’s Critique of the Unscientific personality of Newton’s Philosophy.- four. The Clock as a systematic Model.- five. technological know-how and Unscientific Philosophy: Newton’s Contradictory Views.- 6. Results.- Two/Element and process in smooth Philosophy.- IV. the idea that of aspect in seventeenth Century traditional Philosophy.- 1. Bacon.- 2. Descartes.- three. Newton’s Critique of Descartes; Boyle’s Compromise.- V. the concept that of point within the Systematic Philosophy of Hobbes.- VI. the concept that of aspect in 18th Century Social Philosophy.- 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- 2. Adam Smith.- VII. the connection among usual and Social Philosophy within the paintings of Newton, Rousseau, and Smith.- Three/On the Social background of the Bourgeois notion of the Individual.- VIII. England earlier than the Revolution.- 1. city, nation, and the Poor.- 2. The Politics of the Stuarts.- three. The Church.- four. estate and Protestantism opposed to Feudalism and Papism.- five. sensible and Theoretical fight for Sovereignty.- IX. The Antifeudal Social Philosophy of Hobbes.- 1. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Nature as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- 2. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Society as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- three. Catholic Church and state kingdom within the seventeenth Century.- four. Hobbes’s concept of the kingdom as a freelance of equivalent and Autarchic Individuals.- five. Hobbes’s Political Program.- 6. the debate with Feudal conception and the Analytic-Synthetic Method.- X. the increase of Civil Society in England.- 1. The Levellers.- 2. The Suppression of the Levellers.- three. recovery: Whigs and Tories.- four. The Theoretical Controversies among Whigs and Tories; Locke and Newton as Whigs.- five. The Reign of the ‘Plusmakers’.- XI. replacement Conceptions of Civil Society.- 1. The Capitalistic Commodity creation of autonomous vendors: Adam Smith.- 2. the straightforward Commodity construction of self reliant inner most owners: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- XII. Civil Society and Analytic-Synthetic Method.- 1. Society as an mixture of Autarchic Individuals.- 2. research as picking out the homes of unmarried Individuals.- three. Results.- Four/Atom and Individual.- XIII. The Bourgeois person and the basic homes of a Particle in Newton’s Thought.- 1. Passivity and job as crucial Properties.- 2. Newton’s ‘Ego sum et cogito’.- three. Freedom and Spontaneity.- four. Will and physique; energetic and Passive Principle.- five. The process of ‘Natural Freedom’ within the country and on the earth System.- 6. procedure of Philosophy.- 7. Newtonian Ideology.- XIV. aspect and approach within the Philosophy of Leibniz.- 1. The ‘Oppressed Counsellor’.- 2. at the Social Philosophy of Leibniz.- three. The Double feel of illustration in Mechanics and Metaphysics.- Afterword.- Notes.- Bibliography of Works Cited.- checklist of Abbreviations.- identify Index.

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PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF EMPTY SPACE Under the conditions stated, Newton has demonstrated the existence of empty space between particles. He has, however, not proved that empty space also exists where there are no particles, that is, that there is also an empty space which exists independently of the existence of material bodies. , 575; Cajori, 414). The existence of empty space can also be demonstrated in a strictly empirical way, that is, through a 'deduction' from a phenomenon. lO THE THEORY OF ABSOLUTE SPACE 21 Material bodies can be perceived and offer resistance, as opposed to mathematical bodies, which "are not perceived by touching nor cause a resistance, nor are they usually called bodies" (McGuire, 'Body and Void', 217, 244).

Av + by = ax + bz Conservation of vis viva in every impact: III. avv + byy = axx + bzz The precondition for the conservation of vis viva in colliding bodies - and thus for the conservation of vis viva in the system of the world - is the perfect elasticity of bodies (Et nisi Elasticum esset omne corpus, leges motuum verae et debitae obtineri non possent. 'Beilage' May 1702, GM VI, 103). It is just this general elasticity of the bodies of the world that Malebranche (against whom Leibniz is arguing here) denied; and Leibniz, like everyone else, knew quite well that the perfect elasticity of bodies cannot be proved empirically; on the contrary, it can seemingly be refuted without much trouble.

If the body is considered as an element of a system of bodies, its directive force is a respective force with regard to the system, etc. Rotational motion, however, presents a problem. For here Newton was able to prove that, taken dynamically, the motion must be attributed to that body on which centrifugal forces appear. 15 Twenty years later when Clarke cited rotational motion against Leibniz as a proof for the existence of absolute space (Clarke's 4th Reply, §13), Leibniz responded that he recognized a difference between the "absolute true motion" of a body and a "mere relative change in its situation with respect to another body"; but he insisted that neither in Definition 8 of the Principia nor in the Scholium could he find anything "that proves, or can prove, the reality of space in itself' (Leibniz's 5th Paper, § 53).

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