Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Research Review for by Sally Ozonoff, Sally J. Rogers, Robert L. Hendren

By Sally Ozonoff, Sally J. Rogers, Robert L. Hendren

Autism is a devastating sickness. even though it used to be regarded as infrequent, its numbers are skyrocketing this day. the necessity for this enlightening and eminently sensible publication hasn't ever been better. Written to aid the nonspecialist supply cutting-edge care, this notable quantity synthesizes the newest study at the etiology, overview, and therapy of autism spectrum issues for practitioners. It additionally experiences the clinical literature and functional implications for medical care and, during this period of evidence-based medication, offers empirically supported guidance for review and therapy, highlighting the function of varied specialist disciplines. individuals are a veritable AwhoAs whoA of leaders and specialist investigators from disciplines equivalent to pediatrics, psychology, psychiatry, neurology, genetics, schooling, and early formative years improvement. Their paintings is split into 3 elements: -Part I deals a historic standpoint that strains the main medical advances, debates, and hypotheses that experience educated scientific perform considering that autism was once first defined in 1943, together with easy methods to use those advances in daily perform. -Part II offers a version of crew construction and cross-disciplinary collaboration that's the perform on the clinical research of Neurodevelopmental issues (M.I.N.D.) Institute on the college of CaliforniaADavis, the establishment with which lots of the members are linked. each one bankruptcy reports the real theories, examine findings, and clinical debates proper to a selected self-discipline (psychiatry, psychology, pediatrics, and neurology), employing them to scientific care. -Part III discusses remedies, from nonmedical interventions to pharmacotherapy and replacement theories to cultural concerns and professional-parent collaboration. back utilizing the M.I.N.D. Institute as a version, this part articulates absolutely the necessity of stakeholder/parent views and partnerships in figuring out and dealing with the disorderAcoming complete circle from simply 10 to fifteen years in the past, while mom and dad have been obvious as having an etiologic position within the onset of the sickness via nonempathic parenting types. Concluding with a source appendix and an index, this densely informative quantity indicates us the place technological know-how is basically getting used to yield new figuring out

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It is now accepted that autism occurs across all socioeconomic levels, in all cultures, and in all racial and ethnic groups (Dyches et al. 2001). As further discussed in Chapter 9, research has generally neglected multicultural issues, but epidemiologic studies that have examined such variables suggest that autism prevalence rates do not differ significantly between ethnic and SES groups (Powell et al. 2000; see review in Dyches et al. 2001 and in Chapter 9). Major Scientific Advances Since Kanner Autism Is a Spectrum Disorder As with many conditions, the most severe manifestations are the first recognized.

Pediatrics 108:1155– 1161, 2001 Bettelheim B: The Empty Fortress. New York, Free Press, 1967 Bryson SE, Clark BS, Smith IM: First report of a Canadian epidemiological study of autistic syndromes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 29:433–445, 1988 Burd L, Kerbeshian J, Wikenheiser M, et al: Prevalence of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome in North Dakota adults. Am J Psychiatry 143:787–788, 1986 Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E: Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. JAMA 285:3093–3099, 2001 Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism: An autosomal genomic screen for autism.

They found that typical adults relied heavily on both the amygdala and the frontal lobes to From Kanner to the Millennium 21 perform this task. Adults with either high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome used the frontal lobes much less than the normal adults and did not activate the amygdala at all when looking at the pictures of eyes. Instead they used the superior temporal gyrus, which is not typically active during this task in people without ASD (Baron-Cohen et al. 1999a). A study by Schultz et al.

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