b-Quark Physics with the LEP Collider: The Development of by Gary John Barker

By Gary John Barker

The publication experiences the unforeseen impression that the LEP experiments have had just about b-quark physics. The emphasis is firmly on telling the tale from an experimental point of view. facets of the detectors that have been crucial for the reconstruction of b-hadrons are highlighted, particularly the position performed by way of silicon strip detectors and particle id equipment. the significance of fixing sensible matters resembling detector alignment and song reconstruction to totally detect the reconstruction strength of the detectors is validated besides quite a few examples of power difficulties while those elements are usually not good managed. Barker information new principles and research ideas that developed in the course of the years of LEP operating in order that the data comes in handy to new researchers or these placing jointly plans for destiny b-physics experiments. Highlights of the ultimate b-physics effects from the LEP collaborations are reviewed within the context of effects from different experiments worldwide and with recognize to what we find out about the traditional version of Particle Physics.

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1 Comparison of the silicon vertex detectors of the four LEP experiments in their final configurations ALEPH DELPHI L3 OPAL Reference No. layers r1 (cm) r2 (cm) r3 (cm) No. 5 μm CMOS) 22 the beam line. The simplest scheme, implemented by ALEPH, is to mount read-out electronics directly at the end of the strips which has the disadvantage of introducing extra material. A preferable scheme is to read out both the p- and n-side strips at the ends of sensor modules away from the highest density of traversing particles.

1]). Instead we will concentrate on those aspects of detector development which enabled the LEP b-physics program to function. J. 1007/978-3-642-05279-8_2, C Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 23 24 2 Silicon Vertex Detectors and Particle Identification Fig. 1 A candidate Z0 → bb¯ event reconstructed by the ALEPH silicon vertex detector High energy physics experiments first used semiconductor devices in the 1970s to measure particle energies but it was not until the advent of the planar production technique of silicon p-n junction diodes by Kemmer [2] in 1980, that such detectors could be used also to measure particle trajectories.

Electromagnetic calorimeters reconstructed electron and photon-induced showers and hadron calorimeters performed the same function for hadronic showers. Muons could be identified by associating tracks with hits in the muon chambers around the very outside of the detectors. In this section we will briefly review aspects of particle identification at LEP which were new or novel in some way and which played an important role in the b-physics program. This work in particular led to advances in how to combine particle identification information in an optimal way and this is discussed further in Chap.

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